The most important elements of the draft agreement are: The Northern Ireland Protocol, known as the Irish Backstop, is attached to the draft agreement of November 2018, which outlines provisions to prevent a hard border in Ireland after the UK`s withdrawal from the European Union. The protocol provided for a provision of the safety net to deal with the circumstances in which satisfactory alternative arrangements were to come into force at the end of the transition period. This project has been replaced by a new protocol that will be described as follows. The withdrawal agreement contains a political statement on the future relationship between the UK and the EU, covering a wide range of issues, with both sides agreeing to “do their best” to negotiate the necessary agreements. It may not be legally binding, but it is much better than starting trade negotiations with blank paper. The agreement was revised as part of the Johnson Department renegotiation in 2019. The amendments amend about 5% of the text The agreement covers issues such as money, citizens` rights, border agreements and dispute settlement. It also includes a transition period and an overview of the future relationship between the UK and the EU. It was published on 14 November 2018 and was the result of the Brexit negotiations. The agreement was approved by the heads of state and government of the other 27 EU countries and by the British government led by Prime Minister Theresa May, but it faced opposition from the British Parliament, which needed approval for ratification. The approval of the European Parliament would also have been necessary.
On January 15, 2019, the House of Commons rejected the withdrawal agreement by 432 votes to 202.  The House of Commons again rejected the agreement by 391 votes to 242 on 12 March 2019 and rejected it a third time, on 29 March 2019, by 344 votes to 286. On 22 October 2019, the revised withdrawal agreement negotiated by Boris Johnson`s government approved the first phase in Parliament, but Johnson halted the legislative process when the accelerated approval programme failed to receive the necessary support and announced his intention to declare a general election.  On 23 January 2020, Parliament ratified the agreement by adopting the withdrawal agreement; On 29 January 2020, the European Parliament approved the withdrawal agreement. It was then concluded by the Council of the European Union on 30 January 2020. The withdrawal agreement between the European Union and the United Kingdom sets out the conditions for the UK`s orderly exit from the EU, in accordance with Article 50 of the Treaty on european Union. In October 2019, Boris Johnson`s government and the EU negotiated a new version of the VA. The VA will be legally binding as soon as it is ratified by both the UK and the EU. In addition to the VA, the UK and the EU have agreed on a political declaration (PD) setting out the framework for future relations between the UK and the EU.
The is not a legally binding document and does not need to be ratified by the UK and the EU. This triggered Article 50 of the Treaty on the European Union, which defines the procedure for the withdrawal of an EU member state, thus opening a two-year countdown to withdrawal. The withdrawal agreement also contains provisions for the United Kingdom to leave the Convention setting the status of European schools, with the United Kingdom bound by the Convention and accompanying regulations on accredited European schools until the end of the last academic year of the transition period, i.e. at the end of the spring semester 2020-2021.  EU and UK negotiators have reached an agreement on the draft withdrawal agreement allowing the European Council (Article 50) to adopt guidelines for the future EU-UK relationship on 23 March 2018.